Fiber Color Codes

Fiber Color Codes
Inside the cable or inside each tube in a loose tube cable, individual fibers will be color coded for identification. Fibers follow the convention created for telephone wires except fibers are identified individually, not in pairs. For splicing, like color fibers are spliced to ensure continuity of color codes throughout a cable run.

Fiber Number Color
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown
5 Slate
6 White
7 Red
8 Black
9 Yellow
10 Violet
11 Rose
12 Aqua

 

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Postfix TLS Setup

Configure Postfix to allow secure connections (Short Version)

openssl genrsa -des3 -out mail.domain.tld.key 2048
chmod 600 mail.domain.tld.key
openssl req -new -key mail.domain.tld.key -out mail.domain.tld.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in mail.domain.tld.csr -signkey mail.domain.tld.key -out mail.domain.tld.crt
openssl rsa -in mail.domain.tld.key -out mail.domain.tld.key.nopass
mv mail.domain.tld.key.nopass mail.domain.tld.key
openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout cakey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 3650
chmod 600 mail.domain.tld.key
chmod 600 cakey.pem
mv mail.domain.tld.key /etc/ssl/private/
mv mail.domain.tld.crt /etc/ssl/certs/
mv cakey.pem /etc/ssl/private/
mv cacert.pem /etc/ssl/certs/
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_auth_only = no’
postconf -e ‘smtp_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/ssl/private/mail.domain.tld.key’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/ssl/certs/mail.domain.tld.crt’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/cacert.pem’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_received_header = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s’
postconf -e ‘tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom’
postconf -e ‘myhostname = mail.example.com’

 

Fiber Optics Acronyms

Acronyms:


SFP: Small Form Factor Pluggable
sfp

XFP: 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable
xfp

MU: Miniature Unit
mu
The MU connector, developed by NTT in Japan, is a Small Form Factor (SFF) connector, and can be considered a smaller SC style connector. It is based on a 1.25mm ceramic ferrule and is available in simplex, duplex and higher gangable styles.

LC: Lucent Connector
lc
A small form factor ceramic based connector developed by Lucent.

SC: Subscriber Connector
sc
Originally developed by NTT, the SC connector has a push/pull snap fit. The duplex SC connector uses the same mating profile as the simplex design. A number of SC suppliers actually clip simplex SC connectors together to form the duplex version..

FC: Fiber Connector
fc
The FC connector has a screw-on mating style. Primarily used in the telecom industry, the FC is a robust, highly reliable design.

MTRJ: ‘MT’ ferrule, Register Jack latch
mtrj
This connector is radically different than the other connectors shown, in large part, due to the single ferrule that handles two fibers. This is the first of the Small Form Factor (SFF) connector designs to reach a measure of market acceptance. The MT-RJ is a variation of the reliable MT-ferrule connector series, the first major multi-fiber ferrule design.

ST: Straight Tip
st
Developed by AT&T, the ST connector (for Straight Tip) has been a perennial favorite for its termination simplicity and low cost.

How To Factory Default Cisco Routers

To factory default a Cisco router, you will need to run a couple commands in “rommon”. Send a break a few times to force the router in to rommon. Do this immediately after powering on the router.

rommon>confreg 0x2142
rommon>reset

The router will reload and the config should be wiped. Once you are back in “enable”  mode again, you will need to change the config register back to 0x2102. If you fail to do this, your config changes will not save after a reload or power cycle.

Router(config)#config-register 0x2102
Router(config)#end
Router#write memory


Listed below are other configuration register settings:

0x102
Ignores break
9600 console baud

0x1202
1200 baud rate

0x2101
Boots into bootstrap
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
9600 console baud rate

0x2102
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
9600 console baud rate default value for most platforms

0x2120
Boots into ROMmon
19200 console speed

0x2122
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
19200 console baud rate

0x2124
NetBoot
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
19200 console speed

0x2142
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
9600 console baud rate
Ignores the contents of Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM) (ignores configuration)

0x2902
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
4800 console baud rate

0x2922
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
38400 console baud rate

0x3122
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
57600 console baud rate

0x3902
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
2400 console baud rate

0x3922
Ignores break
Boots into ROM if initial boot fails
115200 console baud rate

DWDM Channels

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Channel Wavelength(nm) Frequency(GHz) Frequency(THz)
1 1,577.03 190,100 190.1
2 1,576.20 190,200 190.2
3 1,575.37 190,300 190.3
4 1,574.54 190,400 190.4
5 1,573.71 190,500 190.5
6 1,572.89 190,600 190.6
7 1,572.06 190,700 190.7
8 1,571.24 190,800 190.8
9 1,570.42 190,900 190.9
10 1,569.59 191,000 191.0
11 1,568.77 191,100 191.1
12 1,567.95 191,200 191.2
13 1,567.13 191,300 191.3
14 1,566.31 191,400 191.4
15 1,565.50 191,500 191.5
16 1,564.68 191,600 191.6
17 1,563.86 191,700 191.7
18 1,563.05 191,800 191.8
19 1,562.23 191,900 191.9
20 1,561.42 192,000 192.0
21 1,560.61 192,100 192.1
22 1,559.79 192,200 192.2
23 1,558.98 192,300 192.3
24 1,558.17 192,400 192.4
25 1,557.36 192,500 192.5
26 1,556.55 192,600 192.6
27 1,555.75 192,700 192.7
28 1,554.94 192,800 192.8
29 1,554.13 192,900 192.9
30 1,553.33 193,000 193.0
31 1,552.52 193,100 193.1
32 1,551.72 193,200 193.2
33 1,550.92 193,300 193.3
34 1,550.12 193,400 193.4
35 1,549.32 193,500 193.5
36 1,548.51 193,600 193.6
37 1,547.72 193,700 193.7
38 1,546.92 193,800 193.8
39 1,546.12 193,900 193.9
40 1,545.32 194,000 194.0
41 1,544.53 194,100 194.1
42 1,543.73 194,200 194.2
43 1,542.94 194,300 194.3
44 1,542.14 194,400 194.4
45 1,541.35 194,500 194.5
46 1,540.56 194,600 194.6
47 1,539.77 194,700 194.7
48 1,538.98 194,800 194.8
49 1,538.19 194,900 194.9
50 1,537.40 195,000 195.0
51 1,536.61 195,100 195.1
52 1,535.82 195,200 195.2
53 1,535.04 195,300 195.3
54 1,534.25 195,400 195.4
55 1,533.47 195,500 195.5
56 1,532.68 195,600 195.6
57 1,531.90 195,700 195.7
58 1,531.12 195,800 195.8
59 1,530.33 195,900 195.9
60 1,529.55 196,000 196.0
61 1,528.77 196,100 196.1
62 1,527.99 196,200 196.2
63 1,527.22 196,300 196.3
64 1,526.44 196,400 196.4
65 1,525.66 196,500 196.5
66 1,524.89 196,600 196.6
67 1,524.11 196,700 196.7
68 1,523.34 196,800 196.8
69 1,522.56 196,900 196.9
70 1,521.79 197,000 197.0
71 1,521.02 197,100 197.1
72 1,520.25 197,200 197.2
73 1,519.48 197,300 197.3
74 1,518.71 197,400 197.4
75 1,517.94 197,500 197.5
76 1,517.17 197,600 197.6
77 1,516.40 197,700 197.7
78 1,515.63 197,800 197.8
79 1,514.87 197,900 197.9
80 1,514.10 198,000 198.0

Bandwidth Comparison

Technology Rate
LocalTalk 230 kbit/s 28.8 kB/s
Econet 800 kbit/s 100 kB/s
Omninet 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s
IBM PC Network 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s
ARCNET (Standard) 2.5 Mbit/s 312.5 kB/s
Token Ring (Original) 4 Mbit/s 500 kB/s
Ethernet (10BASE-T) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
Token Ring (Later) 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
ARCnet Plus 20 Mbit/s 2.5 MB/s
TNCS 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
100VG 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Token Ring IEEE 802.5t 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Fast Ethernet (100BASE-TX) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
FDDI 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.0[25] 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.1[25] 175 Mbit/s 21.875 MB/s
HomePlug AV 200 Mbit/s 25 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s
HIPPI 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
IEEE 1901 1000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s
Token Ring IEEE 802.5v 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-T) 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Reflective memory or RFM2 2 Gbit/s 235 MB/s
Myrinet 2000 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 1_[28] 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
RapidIO Gen1 1x 2.5 Gbit/s 312.5 MB/s
Quadrics QsNetI 3.6 Gbit/s 450 MB/s
Infiniband DDR 4 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
RapidIO Gen2 1x 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s
Infiniband QDR 1_[28] 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
Infiniband SDR 4_[28] 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
Quadrics QsNetII 8 Gbit/s 1 GB/s
RapidIO Gen1 4x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 2x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-X) 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
Myri 10G 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
Infiniband FDR-10 10.31 Gbit/s 1.29 GB/s
Infiniband FDR 1 13.64 Gbit/s 1.7 GB/s
Infiniband DDR 4 16 Gbit/s 2 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 4x 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) Dual Chann 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Infiniband SDR 12 24 Gbit/s 3 GB/s
Infiniband EDR 1 25 Gbit/s 3.125 GB/s
Infiniband QDR 4 32 Gbit/s 4 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 8x 40 Gbit/s 5 GB/s
40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GBASE-X) 40 Gbit/s 5 GB/s
Infiniband FDR-10 41.25 Gbit/s 5.16 GB/s
Infiniband DDR 12 48 Gbit/s 6 GB/s
Infiniband FDR 4 54.54 Gbit/s 6.82 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 16x 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s
Infiniband QDR 12 96 Gbit/s 12 GB/s
Infiniband EDR 4 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s
100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GBASE-X) 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s
Infiniband FDR-10 12 123.75 Gbit/s 15.47 GB/s
Infiniband FDR 12 163.64 Gbit/s 20.45 GB/s
Infiniband EDR 12 300 Gbit/s 37.5 GB/s

 

Optical Carrier (SONET):
OC-1 51.48Mbps Optical Carrier SONET – All OC-n are 51.48*n Mbps
OC-3 155.52Mbps Optical Carrier SONET
OC-12 622.08Mbps Optical Carrier SONET
OC-48 2.4Gbps Optical Carrier SONET
OC-192 9.6Gbps Optical Carrier SONET
OC-256 13.1Gbps Optical Carrier SONET
OC-768 40Gbps Optical Carrier SONET
T Carrier:
T1 1.544Mbps 24 DS0 channels, equivalent to 1 DS1
T1C 3.152Mbps 48 channels
T2 6.312Mbps 96 channels
T3 44.736Mbps 672 channels
T4 274.176Mbs 4032 channels
E1 2.048Mbps 30 64Kbps channels + 2 64Kbps D, aka European T1
DS0 64Kbps 1 channel, same rate in NA, Japan, and Europe
DS1 1.544Mbps 24 channels (T1)
DS1C 3.152Mbps 48 channels (T1C)
DS2 6.312Mbps 96 channels (T2)
DS3 44.736Mbps 672 channels (T3)
DS4 274.176Mbps 4032 channels (T4)
DS1 Japan 1.544Mbps 24 channels
DS2 Japan 6.312Mbps 96 channels
DS3 Japan 32.064Mbps 480 channels
DS4 Japan 97.728Mbps 1440 channels
DS5 Japan 400.352Mbps 5760 channels
DS1 Euro 2.048Mbps 30 channels + 2 D channels (E1)
DS2 Euro 8.448Mbps 120 channels + 2 D
DS3 Euro 34.368Mbps 480 channels + 2 D
DS4 Euro 139.268Mbps 1920 channels + 2 D
DS5 Euro 565.148Mbps 7680 channels + 2 D

IPV6 Reference

2001:0db8:0123:4567:89ab:cdef:1234:5678
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||||
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||128     Single end-points and loopback
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||127   Point-to-point links (inter-router)
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||124
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |120
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| 116
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||112
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||108
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |104
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| 100
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||96
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||92
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |88
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| 84
|||| |||| |||| |||| |||80
|||| |||| |||| |||| ||76
|||| |||| |||| |||| |72
|||| |||| |||| |||| 68
|||| |||| |||| |||64   Single End-user LAN (default prefix size for SLAAC)
|||| |||| |||| ||60   Some (very limited) 6rd deployments (/60 = 16 /64)
|||| |||| |||| |56   Minimal end sites assignment[3] (e.g. Home network) (/56 = 256 /64)
|||| |||| |||| 52   (/52 = 4096 /64)
|||| |||| |||48   Typical assignment for larger sites (/48 = 65536 /64)
|||| |||| ||44
|||| |||| |40
|||| |||| 36   possible future Local Internet registry extra-small allocations
|||| |||32   Local Internet registry minimum allocations
|||| ||28   Local Internet registry medium allocations
|||| |24   Local Internet registry large allocations
|||| 20   Local Internet registry extra large allocations
|||16
||12   Regional Internet Registry allocations from IANA[4]
|8
4

IPV6 explained by Kieth Barker https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rljkNMySmuM
Google’s IPV6 usage chart https://www.google.com/intl/en/ipv6/statistics.html

IPV4 Subnet Reference

 

CIDR Length Mask # Networks       # Hosts
  /1 128.0.0.0 128 A       2,147,483,392
  /2 192.0.0.0 64 A       1,073,741,696
  /3 224.0.0.0 32 A         536,870,848
  /4 240.0.0.0 16 A   268,435,424
  /5 248.0.0.0 8 A   134,217,712
  /6 252.0.0.0 4 A 67,108,856
  /7 254.0.0.0 2 A 33,554,428
  /8 255.0.0.0 1 A   16,777,214
  /9 255.128.0.0 128 B 8,388,352
  /10 255.192.0.0 64 B 4,194,176
  /11 255.224.0.0 32 B 2,097,088
  /12 255.240.0.0 16 B 1,048,544
  /13 255.248.0.0 8 B 524,272
  /14 255.252.0.0 4 B 262,136
  /15 255.254.0.0 2 B 131,068
  /16 255.255.0.0 1 B 65,024
  /17 255.255.128.0 128 C 32,512
  /18 255.255.192.0 64 C   16,256
  /19 255.255.224.0 32 C   8,128
  /20 255.255.240.0 16 C   4,064
  /21 255.255.248.0 8 C   2,032
  /22 255.255.252.0 4 C   1,016
  /23 255.255.254.0 2 C   508
  /24 255.255.255.0 1 C   254
  /25 255.255.255.128   2 subnets 124
  /26 255.255.255.192   4 subnets 62
  /27 255.255.255.224   8 subnets 30
  /28 255.255.255.240   16 subnets 14
  /29 255.255.255.248 32 subnets 6
  /30 255.255.255.252 64 subnets 2
  /31   255.255.255.254   none                    none
 /32 255.255.255.255         1/256 C                            1